Home Covid Vaccino Pfizer anti Covid, l’annuncio: “Efficace al 90%”

Vaccino Pfizer anti Covid, l’annuncio: “Efficace al 90%”

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Vaccino Pfizer anti Covid, l’annuncio. Le ultime notizie sul coronavirus dall’Italia e dal mondo tutte le news aggiornate all’ultim’ora in tempo reale.

Il vaccino contro il coronavirus messo a punto dall’americana Pfizer e della tedesca BioNTech è efficace al 90%. E’ un dato superiore alle aspettative, che arriva dalla conclusione delle sperimentazioni sugli uomini. Lo ha annunciato il presidente di Pfizer Albert Bourla.

Il ministro della Salute tedesco ha subito parlato di risultati “incoraggianti”. Le borse in tutto il mondo hanno reagito euforiche. La buona notizia è una boccata d’ossigeno, dopo un mese di ottobre che, dal punto di vista dei contagi e delle vittime, è stato il peggiore vissuto dal mondo intero dall’inizio della pandemia.

Il vaccino è frutto del matrimonio fra la Big Pharma americana Pfizer e la biotech tedesca BioNTech, fondata da una coppia di scienziati di origine turca.

Le due aziende sono le prime a diffondere i dati conclusivi dei trial (che comunque proseguiranno ancora qualche mese). Ora possono attendere con fiducia l’autorizzazione urgente delle agenzie regolatorie. La previsione è che il via libera alla messa in commercio arrivi, almeno negli Stati Uniti, entro novembre.

A strettogiro di posta dovrebbe essere la volta dell’Europa. Pfizer e BioNTech prevedono di poter consegnare 50 milioni di dosi nel mondo entro quest’anno e 1,3 miliardi nel 2021.

Vaccino Pfizer anti Covid, i dati

Le prime dosi non saranno certo sufficienti per tutti. La Commissione Europea ha concluso con la Big Pharma americana un contratto di pre-acquisto per 200 milioni di dosi, da dividere fra gli stati in base alla popolazione. Il vaccino è adatto alle persone tra i 16 e gli 85 anni.

Ne serviranno due dosi, anche se i dati dimostrano una certa efficacia già dopo la prima.

La distribuzione però non sarà semplice: le fiale vanno mantenute a meno 80 gradi fino alla somministrazione. Freezer così potenti, in molte zone anche d’Italia, sono disponibili negli ospedali e nei centri vaccinali più grandi.

Le fasi uno e due dei trial, nel corso dell’estate, avevano misurato la produzione di anticorpi nei volontari. La fase tre, la più lunga, è servita invece per calcolare l’efficacia. A metà dei volontari è stato iniettato il vaccino. All’altra metà un placebo. Poi è stato calcolato quanti infetti si sono registrati in ciascun gruppo. La differenza è appunto il dato sull’efficacia. In tutto, in entrambi i bracci della sperimentazione, i contagiati sono stati 94. Non è noto quanti in ciascun gruppo, ma il rapporto dovrebbe appunto essere di uno a nove. 

La Food and Drug Administration negli Usa e l’Organizzazione mondiale della sanità si erano dette disposte ad approvare solo vaccini efficaci al 50%. Né, durante le sperimentazioni, si sono verificati eventi avversi sui volontari, a parte in alcuni pochi gradi di febbre. La riduzione del 90% dei casi annunciata dall’azienda, però, riguarda la malattia con sintomi. Resta da chiarire se il vaccino riesce a impedire l’ingresso del virus nell’organismo o si limita a mitigare la malattia. In quest’ultimo caso, c’è il rischio che le persone vaccinate possano restare contagiose, diventando in pratica dei portatori sani.

Le tempistiche

Ora i risultati di Pfizer e BioNTech dovranno essere diffusi nei dettagli, con i dati sulla sicurezza sui 45mila volontari testati, e pubblicati su una rivista scientifica. L’Ema, l’Agenzia europea del farmaco, ha già iniziato la sua valutazione a ottobre. La porterà avanti nei tempi più rapidi possibili. Entro il mese, o al massimo a dicembre, sono attesi anche i dati di altri due vaccini: AstraZeneca con Oxford e della biotech americana Moderna. A dicembre dovrebbe finire la sperimentazione anche Johnson&Johnson.

Rispetto alla tabella di marcia, i dati arrivano un po’ in ritardo. Il calo del coronavirus in estate ha infatti rallentato le infezioni nei volontari. Il tempo necessario a raggiungere una differenza statisticamente valida tra il gruppo dei vaccinati e quello del placebo si è allungato. Resta ancora un’incognita la durata dell’efficacia. Ci si attende che sia di 6-12 mesi. Ma sono solo congetture: per avere una risposta bisognerà solo aspettare il passare del tempo.

Il metodo usato per questo vaccino (e per quello di Moderna) è l’Rna messaggero. Un piccolo gene sintetico viene iniettato nell’organismo. Una volta penetrato nelle cellule, ordina loro di produrre una proteina della spike (la punta della corona) del coronavirus. La spike funge da antigene, stimola cioè la reazione del sistema immunitario. Vaccini simili sono in teoria semplici e rapidi da produrre. Ma la tecnologia è del tutto nuova. Quello per il coronavirus sarebbe il primo vaccino al mondo prodotto in questa maniera.

vaccino-pfizer-anti-covid
vaccino-pfizer-anti-covid

Fonte: La Repubblica

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