Home Covid Variante brasiliana Ciccozzi: “Riesce a rallentare di 10 volte gli anticorpi”

Variante brasiliana Ciccozzi: “Riesce a rallentare di 10 volte gli anticorpi”

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Variante brasiliana Ciccozzi – L’intervista all’esperto Massimo Ciccozzi e le sue parole sulla variante brasiliana del Covid. Le ultime notizie sul coronavirus dal mondo e dall’Italia tutte le ultime news aggiornate in tempo reale.

Dopo la variante inglese e sudafricana, c’è una nuova mutazione del coronavirus Sars-Cov-2 a destare preoccupazione. Si tratta della variante brasiliana: diagnosticata a Manaus, in Brasile, e isolata l’11 gennaio scorso dall’Istituto nazionale giapponese per le malattie infettive (Niid).

“Quello che preoccupa maggiormente di questa variante è la sua sospetta capacità di sfuggire al sistema immunitario. Inoltre, il virus mutato sarebbe non solo più infettivo, ma potrebbe anche re-infettare chi è già stato colpito dal Covid-19”.

Lo racconta l’epidemiologo Massimo Ciccozzi, ordinario di statistica medica ed epidemiologica molecolare all’Università Campus Biomedico di Roma.

Variante brasiliana Ciccozzi, l’intervista all’esperto

Professore ci spiega quali sono le caratteristiche della variante brasiliana e quali invece le differenze con le altre già in circolazione?
“Partiamo intanto dal nome: quest’ultima è indicata con la sigla B.1.1.248 e nasce da 12 mutazioni concentrate sulla principale arma del virus, la proteina Spike. Nello specifico le varianti brasiliane sono in realtà due: una con tre mutazioni, la B.1.1.28 (K417N / E484K / N501Y), ribattezzata P.1, e l’altra con una sola mutazione, la B.1.1.28 (E484K). Si differenzia dalla altre anche per questo: la variante inglese ha 9 mutazioni concentrate nella Spike, quella sudafricana ne ha 8 e quella italiana (N501T) ne ha 5”. 

Torniamo alle due varianti brasiliane. Cosa hanno invece di diverso l’una dall’altra?
“Secondo i primi studi, pare che la B.1.1.28 (E484K) eluda gli anticorpi, ovvero è come se questi ultimi funzionassero ma dieci volte volte meno, mettendoci più tempo a neutralizzarla. E questo puo essere un problema”. 

Esistono, invece, analogie con qualche variante in particolare?
“Sono tutte varianti più o meno portate ad avere una maggiore contagiosità. Quella brasiliana e sudafricana però potrebbero far diminurie maggiormente la forza degli anticorpi neutralizzanti. Inoltre la brasiliana come la sudafricana ha la mutazione E484K, a differenza di quella inglese e italiana. Sono mutazioni che rendono le varianti diverse dal ceppo originario”.        

La variante brasiliana mette a rischio l’efficacia dei vaccini?
“Al momento pare di no. Nessuna delle varianti in circolazione, ma non prevalenti rispetto al ceppo originario di Whuhan e successivamente soppiantato dal ceppo DG614, sembra mettere in pericolo l’efficacia dei vaccini. Dopo la prima variazione, la DG614, identificata tra febbraio e marzo  negli Usa e in Europa, in estate sono inziate a comparire le altre: prima quella spagnola (20A), a seguire quella danese (Y453) che ha infettato i visoni, poi inglese, sudafricana, brasiliana/giapponese, italiana. Sei varianti nel giro di qualche mese significa solo una cosa: che il virus muta e anche velocemente a dispetto di chi diceva, all’inizio della pandemia, che il virus non mutava”.

Esclusa l’inefficacia del vaccino, cosa c’è da temere?
“Il vero problema è la sua circolazione. Il virus non deve circolare per due motivi: primo, perché più circola, più è probabile che una persona si possa re-infettare con questa variante; secondo, perché il virus, sotto pressione dei vaccini, è spinto a mutare e non sappiamo quali altre mutazioni possano avvenire. Quindi non escludo che potrebbero esserci in futuro altre varianti. Prevederle è impossibile”. 

Come si potrebbe frenare la corsa del virus?
“Innanzitutto occorrerebbe creare un sistema di sorveglianza e monitaraggio molecolare, che ci aiuterebbe a capire quali sono le varianti e in che misura circolano nel nostro Paese. In Italia ancora manca. Secondo poi bisognerebbe accettare in maniera definitiva che l’idea paventata da alcuni studiosi di provare l’immunità di gregge facendo infettare le persone è fallita , sia perché il virus muta per natura sia perché sono molteplici i ceppi in circolazione”.

C’è qualche suo studio in itinere?
“Sì. Stiamo studiando insieme al professor Arnaldo Caruso l’effetto di una mutazione chiamata Q493K, molto vicina alla mutazione N501T, ovvero alla variante italiana che abbiamo già identificato nei giorni scorsi a Brescia. Vogliamo capire se ha un effetto neutralizzante o meno”. 

Sabato scorso il ministro della salute Roberto Speranza ha firmato un’ordinanza per bloccare i voli in partenza dal Brasile e vietare l’ingresso nel nostro Paese di chi negli ultimi 14 giorni vi è transitato. Può bastare?
“No. Dobbiamo assolutamente monitorare non solo tutti i viaggi provenienti dal Brasile ma anche quelli provenienti da altri scali e che implicano comunque l’arrivo di passeggeri dal Brasile. Questo vale anche per chi giunge dall’Inghilterra”. 

Quante probabilità ci sono che la variante brasiliana sia arrivata già in Italia?
“Ancora non si hanno dati su questo. Sappiamo che l’allarme è partito dal Giappone e che un caso è stato registrato anche in Gran Bretagna. Sono invece maggiori i dati sulla presenza della variante inglese: a Roma un caso, come nel bergamasco. Mentre nelle Marche 51 su 133 campioni sequenziati avevano la variante inglese”.

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massimo-ciccozzi

Fonte: Repubblica

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